Footnote Referencing – What You Need to Know

Are you doing a research looking to present your thesis? Here is what you need for Footnote Referencing

Footnote

 

What is a footnote?

A footnote provides additional information or references for the reader.

It is indicated with a superscript numeral (Allow1) within the text that corresponds to the same numeral at the bottom of the page. This is followed by the reference or additional information.

A footnote directly follows the text it pertains to. Footnotes can be found at the bottom of the same page as the original quote to which it is referring.

When the footnote is only placed at the end of the paper or book entirely, it is called endnotes.

If a copyright permission footnote is added, the original letter regarding copyright permission must be attached to the paper.

 

 

Footnote Usage Rules

  • Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, not restarting numbering on each page.
  • Each quotation requires a footnote.
  • Footnotes are always double-spaced.
  • Footnotes are referenced using a superscript number.
  • Ensure your style is consistent.

 

Read also:

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Footnote styles

 

  1. MLA style

  • Used to cite sources, attribute copy written information, and include tangential information.
  • It utilizes Arabic numeral subscripts.
  • It discourages excessive use of footnotes as a citation method, prefers in-text citation.
  • A works publication year is not cited when footnote is used in MLA style (mainly cites the author and work title).

MLA – Modern Language Association.

Designed for communications and humanities writing.

 

 

  1. APA style

  • Cites the work title, author, and publication year.
  • Used to cite sources, attribute copy written information, and include tangential information.
  • It utilizes Arabic numeral subscripts.
  • It discourages excessive use of footnotes as a citation method, prefers in-text citation.

APA – American Psychological Association

Designed for writing science works.

 

 

  1. Chicago style

  • Used to cite sources, attribute copy written information, and include tangential information.
  • Encourages the use of footnotes as source citation.
  • The footnotes are indented.
  • It uses full-sized numbers followed by a period.
  • Uses spacing to improve legibility.
  • Cites the work title, author, and publication year.

Chicago style designed for professional works and focuses on publishing requirement to publish your paper. This is often used for students’ thesis and research publications.

 

 

Examples of footnotes formatted in the 3 styles.

 

  • APA Content Footnote Example:

Text within the research paper:

The History of Traditional Education in Nigeria.1

 

Footnote

1 HQ Words, Nigerian Education System, 2023

 

  • MLA Copyright Attribution Footnote Example:

Text within the research paper:

The Chronicle of Presidential Leadership in Nigeria.1

 

Footnote

1  HQ Words, Nigerian Presidents.

 

  • Chicago Manual Citation Footnote Example:

Text within the research paper:

Nigerian Languages are diverse due to multiple ethnicity.1

 

Footnote

1 HQ Words, Nigerian Languages, (hqwords.com, 2023).

 

Note

It is important to ensure that full bibliography citation is provided at the end of the paper.

Bibliography contain all the information readers need to follow up your source. It is arranged alphabetically by the primary author’s surname.

 

 

Footnote format versus Bibliography format – Chicago Manual Style

 

Footnote

Reference number | Author(s) | Title | Place of publication/publisher/year of publication | page(s)

Bibliography

Author(s) | Title | Place of publication/publisher/year of publication

 

Remember to ask your teacher the preferred style for your paper before you begin.

 

 

 What Type of Writing Uses Footnotes?

Footnote is used in research writing. Since the use of footnote is one way to make in-text citations, it can be used in any form of research or academic paper. However, different referencing styles use footnotes in different ways.

Typically, Oxford, Chicago and Turabian will use footnotes for in-text citations.

MLA and APA will also use footnotes but to provide content or copyright information, and not typically for attribution.

 

Also, some areas of discipline may prefer a certain footnote style over the others. Ensure you check with your supervisor, coordinator, teacher, or whoever is overseeing your writing to ensure you are working with the right style.

 

MLA – Modern Language Association.

Designed for communications and humanities writing.

 

APA – American Psychological Association

Designed for writing science works.

 

Chicago style designed for professional works and focuses on publishing requirement to publish your paper. This is often used for students’ thesis and research publications.

 

 

Writer: Chinyere Nwosu

Certified Teacher

 

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