20 Apr Conjunctive Adverbs: Meaning, Definition and Examples
A conjunctive adverb is a class of words that is an adverb by design but has the characteristic of conjunction. It can be used to join different clauses or sentences, to show cause and effect, sequence, and contrast between the two clauses or sentences.
Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may be moved around in the sentence or clause in which they appear. This is just one of the things you’ll need to remember; additional rules for using conjunctive adverbs follow:
- When separating two independent clauses, always use a period or semicolon before the conjunctive adverb. Conjunctive adverbs are not strong enough to join independent clauses without supporting punctuation.
- Use a comma if a conjunction such as and, but, or, or so appears between the conjunctive adverb and the first clause.
- Use a comma behind conjunctive adverbs when they appear at the beginning of a sentence’s second clause. The only exception to this rule is that no comma is necessary if the adverb is a single syllable.
- If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it should usually be enclosed in commas. This is not an absolute rule and does not usually apply to short clauses.
Examples of Conjunctive Adverbs
The conjunctive adverbs in the following examples are in bold for easy identification.
- Jeremy kept talking in class; therefore, he got in trouble.
- She went into the store; however, she didn’t find anything she wanted to buy.
- I like you a lot; in fact, I think we should be best friends.
- Your dog got into my yard; in addition, he dug up my petunias.
- You’re my friend; nonetheless, I feel like you’re taking advantage of me.
- My car payments are high; on the other hand, I really enjoy driving such a nice vehicle.
Conjunctive Adverbs List
There are many conjunctive adverbs – in fact, there are many more of these than there are common conjunctions. Here is a comprehensive list of conjunctive adverbs.
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- As a result
- In addition
Conjunctive Adverb Exercise
The following exercises will help you gain a greater understanding of how conjunctive adverbs work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.
1. You need to put more effort into your work; ________________, you won’t get a passing grade.
Answer: B. You need to put more effort into your work; otherwise, you won’t get a passing grade.
2. We wanted to spend the day at the beach; ______________________, it rained so we stayed home.
Answer: C. We wanted to spend the day at the beach; however, it rained so we stayed home.
3. She is a very smart girl; __________________, it’s not at all surprising that she gets such good grades.
Answer: E. She is a very smart girl; therefore, it’s not at all surprising that she gets such good grades.
4. Jared is a millionaire; __________________, his brother Jeremy is always flat broke.
Answer: A. Jared is a millionaire; in contrast, his brother Jeremy is always flat broke.
5. He felt he couldn’t tell the truth about what happened; ___________________, he lied.
A. In contrast
Answer: E. He felt he couldn’t tell the truth about what happened; instead, he lied.
In conclusion, conjunctive adverbs are a type of adverb that connect clauses or sentences together to show relationships between ideas.
They are often used to indicate a contrast, continuation, addition, or result. Conjunctive adverbs are usually preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma, and they help to make writing more coherent and cohesive.
Some common examples of conjunctive adverbs include “however,” “therefore,” “nevertheless,” “meanwhile,” “consequently,” and “moreover.” It is important to use conjunctive adverbs correctly in order to effectively convey the intended meaning and maintain the coherence of a text.